Guide for Authors


 For non-English speaking authors it is highly recommended to put their manuscripts for English language editing before submission. Manuscripts with no enough English standard will be rejected before scientific evaluation.

Manuscripts prepared for KEA should be arranged in the following order:


1. Title and name(s) of author(s).

2. Author and paper documentation at bottom of the same page.

3. Abstract.

4. Keywords.

5. Introduction. To includes a literature review.

6. Materials and methods/methodology.

7. Results. This section is sometimes combined with the discussion.

8. Discussion. Sometimes a conclusion section is included in the paper, which may be combined with the discussion section.

9. Acknowledgement.

10. References.



The title should represent the article's content and facilitate retrieval in indices developed by secondary literature services. A good title (i) briefly identifies the subject, (ii) indicates the purpose of the study, and (iii) gives important and high-impact words early. A person usually decides to read an article based on its title. Besides being descriptive, titles should be short. It is recommended that titles not exceed 12 words, except in unusual circumstances. A title containing fewer than five words probably should be expanded.

The meaning and order of words in a title are also important. Do not start the title with low-impact words such as " effect of " or " influence of " . Instead, concentrate on the subject and findings of the research. The title must be useful in itself as a label. The terms in the title should be limited to those words that give significant information about the article's content.

Many readers peruse the titles in a table of contents to decide whether or not to turn to a given abstract. The title must interest these readers. Highly specific, narrow titles with words understandable only to specialists will be passed over. Furthermore, literature searchers will ignore titles that are incomprehensible to all but a few individuals.

Titles should never contain abbreviations, chemical formulas, or proprietary names; and authors should avoid using unusual or outdated terminology.

For economy of space, common names of chemical and crops should be used in titles. If a crop or microorganism has no common name, then the scientific name (genus and species) is used.

A running title of 50 character and /or spaces should be provided.

Author and paper documentation are shown as footnote on the first page. This footnote lists author(s) and complete address (es). It is necessary for the corresponding author to provide institutional affiliation and e-mail address. Professional titles are not listed. Other information, such as grant funding, may be included before the date of receiving the manuscript in this paragraph or in the acknowledgement at the end of the paper. If there is only one author or if all authors have the same address, the name(s) is (are) not repeated in the author and paper documentation.



The abstract should be a suitable literary adjunct to the printed paper. It should be written after the paper is completed and should be consistent with statements in the paper. To some extent, the abstract will repeat wording in the paper, but because it is sometimes read immediately before the introduction or other main sections, it should not be a tedious recapitulation.

On the other hand, the abstract must be completely self-explanatory and intelligible in itself. It should include the following:

1. Reason for doing work, including rationale or justification for the research.

2. Objectives and topics covered.

3. Brief description of methods used. If the paper deals mainly with methods, give the basic principles, range and degree of accuracy for new methods.

4. Results.

5. Conclusions.

The abstract also should call attention to new items, observations and numerical data. Abstract should be informative. Expressions such as " is discussed " and " is described " should rarely be included. Specific rather than general statements must be used, especially in the methods and results sections of the abstract. For example, do not write " two rates of P " but write " rates of 40 and 80 kg of P ha-1 " .

The abstract should not exceed 300 words for full-length papers and 100 words for notes, and is not divided into paragraphs. It should not include bibliographic, figure, or table references. Equations, formulas, obscure abbreviations and acronyms are also inappropriate. The scientific names of plants, insects, etc., full chemical names and identification of soil, if the soil type is a factor in interpreting the results, must be included in the abstract when the common names are first mentioned.

Authors are encouraged to prepare a Farsi translation of abstract which will appear at the top of the article. However, for non-Iranian authors, the translation will be done by the editorial board of JHE.


A list of three to five keywords from the manuscript must be supplied. Keywords should include the topic investigated and special techniques used. Keywords should be informative without reference to the main text.



The article should begin by clearly identifying its subject. The author should state the hypothesis or definition of the problem the research was designed to solve. A reader is given orientation to the research being reported by brief reference to previous concepts and research. References to literature should be limited to information that is essential to the reader's orientation. Most readers do not need long literature reviews, especially of old references, if newer ones are available, or to be convinced of the importance of the research. The purpose of the introduction is to supply sufficient background information to allow the reader to understand and evaluate the results of the present study without needing to refer to previous publications on the topic.

Introductions should be short and include:

1. A brief statement of the problem that justifies the work, or the hypothesis on which it is based.

2. The findings of others that will be challenged or developed.

3. An explanation of the general approaches and objectives. This part may indicate the means by which the question was examined, especially if the methods are new.



JHE will publish manuscripts which are based on experimental and survey data and theoretical analyses, provided that acceptable results are obtained. The purpose of this section is to give sufficient procedural details so that a competent scientist can repeat the experiments.

For materials, the authors should supply the appropriate technical specifications and quantities and source of method of preparation. If a commercially available product is used, the name and address of its manufacturer should be given parenthetically after it is first mentioned. If necessary, the pertinent chemical and physical properties of the reagents should be listed. Chemical rather than trade names are preferred. Any plants, animals, other organisms and soils not mentioned in the abstract should be identified accurately by genus, species, cultivar, soil classification and special characteristics.

Methods should be cited by a reference(s) if possible. If the techniques used are widely familiar, write only their names. If a method is modified, an outline of the modification should be given unless the modification is trivial. Give details of unusual experimental designs or statistical methods. Field works in agronomy and plant breeding should be based on, at least, two years data. This section may be arranged chronologically, by a succession of techniques, or in another manner. This section may include tables and figures.



A common fault in the results section is to repeat in prose what is already clear from a cursory examination of the graphics. If the tables and figures are well constructed, they will show both the results and the experimental design.

Tables, graphs and other illustrations in the results section should provide a clear understanding of representative data obtained from the experiments. Data include in illustrations and tables should not be extensively discussed in the text, but significant findings should be noted. When only a few determinations are presented, they should be treated descriptively in the text. Repetitive determinations should be presented in tables or graphs.

The objective of each experiment should be made clear in the text call attention to special features, e.g; one quantity being greater than another one, result is linear across a range, or the optimum value, etc.

Finally, the results should be related to one another. Frequently, this causes the results section to be combined with discussion section.



The discussion section interprets data presented in the results section, giving particular attention to the problem, or hypothesis, presented in the introduction. A good discussion will contain:

1. Principles, relationships and generalizations that can be supported by the results.

2. Exceptions, lack of correlation and definition of unsettled points, gap areas needing further investigation.

3. Emphasis on results and conclusions that agree or disagree with other work(s).

4. Practical as well as theoretical implications.

5. Conclusions, with summary of evidence for each one.

The discussion section, if not combined with the results section, should not recapitulate results, but should discuss their meaning. The reader should be told how the results provide a solution to the problem stated in the introduction or given as the objective of the work. The work should be connected with previous work, with an explanation of how and why it differs or agree. References should be limited to those that are most pertinent. Older references should be omitted if they have been superseded by more recent ones.



In this section, the author(s) may wish to thank some research institutions, companies, or governmental bodies or people who have contributed or financially supported the research from which the manuscript is derived.



Two methods of giving references in the text are acceptable:

The name-year system (e. g. Shahraki, 1996; CSSA, 1997) and the reference number method ( e. g. 3). For two authors, name both: Shahraki & Hashemi (1997). With three or more authors, use et al.: Shahraki et al.(1997) or Shahraki et al. (9). For two or more article by the same author(s) in the same year, designate them as follow:

Shahraki (1997 a, b) or Shahraki et al. (1997a, b).

At the end of paper, for:


Simmons, Alan H., and Gary O. Rollefson. 1984. “Neolithic „Ain Ghazal (Jordan): Interim Report on the First Two Seasons, 1982–1983,” Journal of Field Archaeology 11: 387–395.


Watson, Patty Jo, Steven A. LeBlanc, and Charles L. Redman. 1984. Archeological Explanation: The Scientific Method in Archeology. New York: Columbia University Press.

Published dissertation or thesis:

Reitz, Elizabeth Jean .1979. Spanish and British Subsistence Strategies at St. Augustine, Florida, and Frederica, Georgia, between 1563–1783. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.

Unpublished dissertation or thesis:

Earle, T. K. 1973. “Control Hierarchies in the Traditional Irrigation Economy of Halelea District, Kauai, Hawaii,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Monograph in a series:

Granger, Joseph E., Jr. 1978. Meadowood Phase Settlement Pattern in the Niagara Frontier Region of Western New York State. Anthropological Papers, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan 65. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
Article in an edited book:

Brain, Jeffrey P. 1978. “Late Prehistoric Settlement Patterning in the Yazoo Basin and Natchez Bluffs Region of the Lower Mississippi Valley,” In Bruce D. Smith, (ed.), Mississippi Settlement Patterns. New York: Academic Press, 331–368.
Work accepted for publication:

Deck, Daniel. in press. “The Restless Grass,” Llano Estacado Studies.

Bar (british archaeological reports):

Belli, Paolo. 1987. “Costruzioni circolari di Creta,” In Miriam S. Balmuth, (ed.), Studies in Sardinian Archaeology III: Nuraghic Sardinia and the Mycenaean World. BAR International Series 387. Oxford: B.A.R., 129–134.

Elia, Ricardo J., and Al B. Wesolowsky, editors. 1991. Archaeological Excavations at the Uxbridge Almshouse Burial Ground in Uxbridge, Massachusetts. BAR International Series

564. Oxford: Tempvs Reparatvm.

Ancient works:

Livy The Early History of Rome. Aubrey de Sélincourt, trans. Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin Books 1960.


Cobo, Bernabe. 1964. Historia del Nuevo Mundo. (Originally published 1653.)

Biblioteca del Autores Españoles, Vols. 91, 92. Madrid: Ediciones Atlas

Figures and Tables:

Do not capitalize the title of the article except proper names and the first letter of the words of the title.

Periodical titles should be abbreviated as given in Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index (Chem. Abstr. Serv., 1984).



Page author proofs will be sent to authors for checking before publication. Alterations other than correction of printer's error will be allowed only at the editor's discretion. Manuscripts after being corrected must be returned to the editorial office within 15 days, otherwise the editor reserves the right to correct the proofs himself and to send the material for publication.


Instructions for Contributors to the

Economic Knowledge in Agriculture (EKA)